New energy harvesting systems
The energy concept of the unit will be a self-evident part of the architectural design process from the very beginning: a synthesis of passive measures (e.g. use of solar energy and daylight, natural ventilation, passive cooling) for high indoor environmental quality and
innovative solutions for energy supply yielding carbon neutrality over the year. This also includes improvement of the urban microclimate around the building by known approaches (e.g. green surfaces, unsealing area on the plot, etc.), and applying other innovative coatings in order to minimize absorption of solar radiation and dissipation of heat from the building.
The use of recycled materials and components will also include – as far as possible – the solar panels. Reassembled PV modules with existing PV cells will be integrated into the roof(s) and facades. If thermal absorber walls are applied as a heat source for the heat pump they will be fabricated with recycled materials as well.
Comfort and well-being are of utmost importance for living spaces. Besides the selection of healthy materials, which provide a high indoor air quality, strong emphasis will be put on the availability of daylight and on thermal comfort. Parametric studies for the summer period will be performed to achieve a façade design with optimal sizing of glazings, optical properties and adequate shading, which minimizes overheating by solar input and still guarantees daylight and a view to the outside. The combination of shading and solar harvesting will also be considered. As RoofKIT is a lightweight construction, the dynamics of indoor temperature have to be studied in detail and the potential use of phase change material (PCM) is considered to artificially increase thermal mass. Insulation of the envelope combined with selective exterior surfaces will minimize cooling and heating loads.
Passive cooling (discharge of internal thermal mass) will be achieved by natural ventilation during nights. An additional cooling technology for peak loads – e.g. during heat waves or exceptional use patterns – will be designed as well – either based on active ventilation with pre-cooled air or radiative cooling as a synergetic usage of the heating system.
Heating energy will most likely be supplied by a heat pump system. Performance assessment will show whether a larger thermal storage (preferably based on phase change materials to reduce the volume, or activating the ground under the building site) will be included additionally to a battery storage. For heat transfer, a radiative system will be applied to maximize thermal comfort. Radiant temperature asymmetry will be avoided with a highly insulated building envelope. The radiant heating system itself will either be hydronic or IR heating panels will applied, if the additional electricity demand will not harm the carbon-neutral energy concept.